What is Abuse?

                                What is Trauma?

Identifying both abuse and trauma is essential. Without an understanding of what is involved, it is

truly impossible to address the multiple problems surrounding these very serious issues. 

Child Abuse


Simply stated, Child abuse is the bad treatment of a child under the age of 18 by a parent,

caretaker, someone in their home or someone who works with or is around children.

Child abuse includes:

  • Physical - hitting, shaking, burns, human bites, strangulation.

  • Emotional - constant disapproval, belittling, constant teasing.

  • Sexual - fondling, the showing of private parts by an adult, sexual intercourse, oral and anal sex, forcing a child to watch while others have sexual intercourse, incest, pornography.

  • Neglect - absence of adequate food, shelter, emotional and physical security, and medical care.


The following information is gathered from:

Kids Count, Children’s Defense Fund,& American SPCC


Nationally over 7 million U.S. children come to the attention of Child Protective Services each year according to a Children’s Bureau 2015 report.

  • 37% of American children are reported to Child Protective Services by their 18th birthday (African American children are reported at 54%)

  • 1 in 4 girls and 1 in 6 boys will be sexually abused before they turn 18 years old.13

  • 34% of people who sexually abuse a child are family members.

  • 3% of girls were age 10 or younger at the time of their first rape/victimization, and 30% of girls were between the ages of 11 and 17.

  • 96% of people who sexually abuse children are male, and 76.8% of people who sexually abuse children are adults.

  • 325,000 children are at risk of becoming victims of commercial child sexual exploitation each year.

  • The average age at which girls first become victims of prostitution is 12 to 14 years old, and the average age for boys is 11 to 13 years old.

  • 4 million children received prevention & post-response services.

  • The highest rate of child abuse in children under one year old (24.2% per 1,000).

  • 80% of child fatalities involve at least one parent.

  • Estimated that between 50-60% of maltreatment fatalities are not recorded on death certificates.



  • 4 million child maltreatment referral reports received.

  • 207,000 children received foster care

  • Over one-quarter (27.%) of victims are younger than 3 years.

  • 9% of the child abuse victims die from neglect.

  • 9% of the child abuse victims die from physical abuse.

  • 4% of children who die from child abuse are under one year.

  • More than 90% of juvenile sexual abuse victims know their perpetrator.

  • Child abuse crosses all socio-economic and educational levels, religions, ethnic and cultural groups.

  • Children who experience child abuse & neglect are about 9 times more likely to become involved in criminal activity.



  • Abused children are 25% more likely to experience teen pregnancy.

  • Abused teens are more likely to engage in sexual risk taking, putting them at greater risk for STDs.

  • About 30% of abused and neglected children will later abuse their own children, continuing the horrible cycle of abuse.

  • In at least one study, about 80% of 21 year-olds that were abused as children met criteria for at least one psychological disorder.



  • Alcohol abuse (parent/caregiver)—the compulsive use of alcohol that is not of a temporary nature.

  • Drug abuse (parent/caregiver)—the compulsive use of drugs that is not of a temporary nature.

  • Domestic violence (parent/caregiver)–abusive, violent, coercive, forceful, or threatening act or word inflicted by one member of a family or household on another.



  • 1/3 to 2/3 of child maltreatment cases involve substance use to some degree.

  • In one study, children whose parents abuse alcohol and other drugs were three times more likely to be abused and more than four times more likely to be neglected than children from non-abusing families.

  • Two-thirds of the people in treatment for drug abuse report being abused or neglected as children.

  • More than a third of adolescents with a report of abuse or neglect will have a substance use disorder before their 18th birthday, three times as likely as those without a report of abuse or neglect.

Domestic Violence


The following is from:https://ncadv.org/statistics

  • On average, nearly 20 people per minute are physically abused by an intimate partner in the United States. During one year, this equates to more than 10 million women and men.

  • 1 in 4 women and 1 in 9 men experience severe intimate partner physical violence, intimate partner contact sexual violence, and/or intimate partner stalking with impacts such as injury, fearfulness, post-traumatic stress disorder, use of victim services, contraction of sexually transmitted diseases, etc.

  • 1 in 3 women and 1 in 4 men have experienced some form of physical violence by an intimate partner. This includes a range of behaviors (e.g. slapping, shoving, pushing) and in some cases might not be considered "domestic violence."

  • 1 in 7 women and 1 in 25 men have been injured by an intimate partner.

  • 1 in 10 women have been raped by an intimate partner. Data is unavailable on male victims.

  • 1 in 4 women and 1 in 7 men have been victims of severe physical violence (e.g. beating, burning, strangling) by an intimate partner in their lifetime.

  • 1 in 7 women and 1 in 18 men have been stalked by an intimate partner during their lifetime to the point in which they felt very fearful or believed that they or someone close to them would be harmed or killed.

  • On a typical day, there are more than 20,000 phone calls placed to domestic violence hotlines nationwide.

  • The presence of a gun in a domestic violence situation increases the risk of homicide by 500%.

  • Intimate partner violence accounts for 15% of all violent crime.

  • Women between the ages of 18-24 are most commonly abused by an intimate partner.

  • 19% of domestic violence involves a weapon.

  • Domestic victimization is correlated with a higher rate of depression and suicidal behavior.

  • Only 34% of people who are injured by intimate partners receive medical care for their injuries.



  • 1 in 5 women and 1 in 71 men in the United States has been raped in their lifetime.

  • Almost half of female (46.7%) and male (44.9%) victims of rape in the United States were raped by an acquaintance. Of these, 45.4% of female rape victims and 29% of male rape victims were raped by an intimate partner.



  • 19.3 million women and 5.1 million men in the United States have been stalked in their lifetime.1 60.8% of female stalking victims and 43.5% men reported being stalked by a current or former intimate partner.



  • A study of intimate partner homicides found that 20% of victims were not the intimate partners themselves, but family members, friends, neighbors, persons who intervened, law enforcement responders, or bystanders.

  • 72% of all murder-suicides involve an intimate partner; 94% of the victims of these murder suicides are female.



  • 1 in 15 children are exposed to intimate partner violence each year, and 90% of these children are eyewitnesses to this violence.



  • Victims of intimate partner violence lose a total of 8.0 million days of paid work each year.

  • The cost of intimate partner violence exceeds $8.3 billion per year.

  • Between 21-60% of victims of intimate partner violence lose their jobs due to reasons stemming from the abuse.

  • Between 2003 and 2008, 142 women were murdered in their workplace by their abuser, 78% of women killed in the workplace during this time frame.



  • Women abused by their intimate partners are more vulnerable to contracting HIV or other STI’s due to forced intercourse or prolonged exposure to stress.

  • Studies suggest that there is a relationship between intimate partner violence and depression and suicidal behavior.

  • Physical, mental, and sexual and reproductive health effects have been linked with intimate partner violence including adolescent pregnancy, unintended pregnancy in general, miscarriage, stillbirth, intrauterine hemorrhage, nutritional deficiency, abdominal pain and other gastrointestinal problems, neurological disorders, chronic pain, disability, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as noncommunicable diseases such as hypertension, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Victims of domestic violence are also at higher risk for developing addictions to alcohol, tobacco, or drugs.

Healthy Personal Boundaries and How to Establish Them

Learning to set healthy personal boundaries is necessary for maintaining a positive self-image. When establishing healthy boundaries, self-respect is also established. Personal boundaries are the physical, emotional and mental limits we establish to protect ourselves from being manipulated, used, or violated by others. Each person is a unique individual with distinct emotions, needs and preferences. Personal boundaries preserve your integrity, take responsibility for who you are, and take control of your life


  1. Recognize that other people's needs and feelings are not more important than your own. 

  2. Learn to say no; always trying to please others at your own expense is demeaning to your own self-value.

  3. Identify the actions and behaviors that you find unacceptable. Let others know when they've crossed the line, acted inappropriately, or disrespected you in any way.

  4. Tell others when you need emotional and physical space. Allow yourself to be who you really are without pressure from others to be anything else. Know what actions you may need to take if your wishes aren't respected.  

  5. Trust and believe in yourself. You are the highest authority on you. You know yourself best. You know what you need, want, and value. Don't let anyone else make the decisions for you.


Healthy boundaries make it possible for you to respect your strengths, abilities and individuality as well as those of others. An unhealthy imbalance occurs when you encourage neediness, or are needy; want to be rescued, or are the rescuer, or when you allow yourself to be victimized.

http://www.essentiallifeskills.net/personalboundaries.html  Z. Hereford  


Red Flags in Relationships 


Be aware that these behaviors could be the indicators of emotional abuse and/or violence building in a relationship:


                - Unrealistic Expectations

                          - Unreasonable Demands

                - Constant Badgering and/or Blaming

                          - Unwillingness to Listen

                - Refusal of Reasonable Requests

                          - Refusal to Accept Responsibility and/or Deflecting Responsibility 



Abusive vs. Healthy Power in Personal Relationships

(red - negative, abusive power)                                                                               (blue - positive, healthy power)

1. One person has power over the other.                                                             1. Each has personal power.

2. Abuse and control are used.                                                                                2. Mutual respect is practiced.
3. There is one winner and one loser.                                                                    3. Each person is a winner.
4. Only one person's needs are met.                                                                      4. Each person's needs are met.
5. Blame and shame are used to avoid responsibility.                                      5. Each person has accountability and responsibility.
6. Relationships are competitive and/or dominating.                                       6. Relationships are cooperative and supportive.


This comparison is based on concepts presented by Patricia Evans in The Verbally Abusive Relationship. (1996, Adams Media Corp).


Sex Trafficking


Shared hope International   http://www.sharedhope.org/learn/faqs/


Sex trafficking is when a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud or coercion. A commercial sex act means any item of value is traded for any sexual service (prostitution, pornography, or sexual performance). Domestic minor sex trafficking is the commercial sexual exploitation of children, under 18 years old, within U.S. borders for monetary or other  compensation (shelter, food, drugs, etc.). This is synonymous with child sex slavery, sex slavery, child sex trafficking, prostitution of children, and commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC). 

At least 100,000 American children are being exploited through pornography or prostitution every year. The average age a child is first exploited through prostitution is 13 years old, though children as young as infants have been identified in pornography.


Under the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) sex trafficking requires force, fraud or coercion UNLESS the victim is a minor. Any minor used in a commercial sex act (the exchange of any item of value for a sex act) IS a victim of trafficking, regardless of their willingness or desire to engage in the sex act.


Traffickers and pimps use physical, emotional, and psychological abuse to coerce young women and girls into a life of sex trafficking. Traffickers are master manipulators and employ tactics to create a trauma bond between the victim and trafficker. Traffickers often use the threat of violence against victim or a victim’s loved one to secure their submission.


Many pimps often use a “lover-boy” technique to recruit girls from middle and high schools. A lover-boy will present himself as a boyfriend and woo the girl with gifts, promises of fulfilled dreams, protection, adventure – whatever she perceives she is lacking. After securing her love and loyalty, he will force her into prostitution.


Age is the primary factor of vulnerability. Pre-teen or adolescent girls are more susceptible to the calculated advances, deception, and manipulation tactics used by traffickers/pimps – no youth is exempt from falling prey to these tactics. Traffickers target locations youth frequent such as schools, malls, parks, bus stops, shelters and group homes. Runaway, homeless or previously sexual abused youth also may have an increased risk of becoming vulnerable to traffickers.


A pimp is another name for a sex trafficker. Pimps or traffickers are those who profit by receiving cash or other benefits in exchange for the sexual use of a minor by another person. The buyers of sex from juveniles can be anyone – professionals, students, tourists, military personnel, a family member. Because buyers often pay in cash and may interact with a victim for as little as five minutes, buyers are increasingly difficult to identify.


20% of pornographic images are of children; 55% of child pornography comes from the U.S. The sale of child pornography in the U.S. has become more than a $3 billion annual industry. In a study of 932 sex addicts, 90% of the men, and 77% of the women indicated that looking at pornography “played a significant role in their addiction.” Viewing pornography essentially rewires the brain & drastically influences how dopamine & other chemicals are received & used in the brain. (“Wired For Intimacy: How Pornography Hijacks the Male Brain”)



Dan Rather reported on May 18, 2010, in the Huffington Post this story:

Pornland, Oregon: Child Prostitution in Portland


Child prostitution has become a national problem in this country. Yes, I know that you have trouble believing that. You don't want to believe it, so you tend not to. "Widespread sex trafficking in children?", you may be saying to yourself. "Sure, it happens overseas in places like Thailand and Moldova, and while there may be some of it here there's not that much of it in our country."

Based on a month’s long investigation and some reportorial digging, I'm here to tell you that you are wrong. We all are. We're in denial. In covering news for more than 60 years, I'd like to think that few stories shock me anymore. But this is one of them. We ran across it late last year and the more we dug, the more disturbing it became.

Eighty-year-old men paying a premium to violate teenage girls, sometimes supplied by former drug gangs now into child sex trafficking big time? You've got to be kidding. Nope. That's happening and a lot more along the same lines. The business is booming. One of the worst areas for it runs along lines running roughly from Seattle to Portland, to San Francisco and Los Angeles, to Las Vegas. But no place in the country is immune.

To pick just one example among many, Portland, Oregon is without doubt one of the nation's treasures. It has been voted one of the best places to live and work. But according to police, the city and its outlying communities has become a hub for the sexual exploitation of children. In a recent nationwide sting by Federal, state and local law enforcement agencies, Portland ranked second in the country for the number of rescued child prostitutes. And according to Doug Justus, the workhorse sergeant in charge of Portland's tiny Vice Detail, many of the children caught up in this are middle class kids from the area.

The girls, sometimes as young as 12, often 13-16, are lured by a "front man" in his mid-to-late teens. He becomes her "boyfriend," taking her to dinner, buying her nice things, sometimes meeting her parents. The girl eventually moves in with him. Then he says they need money to continue being together. First, she's enticed to sleep with his friends to pay the rent. Soon she's turning tricks for what police say is an endless supply of older men willing to pay top money for sex with very young girls. Other times convincing the young adolescent girls to sell themselves happens very quickly.

"It is an out-of-control problem. It's unbelievable," say Justus. "I've only done this vice-squad job for three years. I've been a cop for 29. If you had told me three years ago that a 14-year-old girl would go to a food court, meet a guy, and three hours later be selling herself, I'd a said, no frigging way. It happens every single day, every day."

It is a very lucrative business, according to Justus. "An average pimp with one kid will make between $800 and $l,000 a day. That's seven days a week, 30 days a month," he said. And the pimps usually have a stable of young girls. No wonder so many criminals in the drug trade have turned to it which they have in droves. There's less chance of being caught, less chance of being prosecuted if caught, lighter sentences -- if any -- if convicted.

There is, and has been for a long time, a national "War on Drugs." There isn't one on child prostitution and what amounts to a slave trade. Only feeble efforts at best. Justus is frustrated that the Portland police have only two full-time vice investigators, compared to dozens of drug investigators.

"I'm not a politician. I'm just a cop. But if I'm a criminal and I got busted for drugs and I had a regional (drug) task force over here. And there's another task force over there, and there, and then I know there's only two vice investigators in the city of Portland, let me think. I think I'll sell women because what are the chances of me being caught?"

The story we've prepared is not about prostitution per se. This is about child abuse. This is also about statutory rape and compelling prostitution among the young. All are difficult to prove. A major reason, according to police, is that it's extremely difficult to convince a young girl to testify against their pimps and "johns". They are afraid.

Sgt. Justus told us the story of a 16-year-old girl whom he convinced to "roll" on her pimp. But before she could testify against him she disappeared -- and her pimp walked free. Justus has spent the last year looking for her and fears she's dead.

How many children are being peddled on the streets of Portland and in other cities and towns, to say nothing of the Internet (Justus and other law enforcement people say Craigslist, along with other Internet sites, are major factors in the spread of child prostitution)? Hard to know about the real numbers. The most conservative estimates are that at least 100,000 American children are being victimized. Many experts say they believe it's closer to 300,000 or more.

Whatever the number, it is a national outrage and disgrace. And the problem is growing, not diminishing. Based on our investigation, we've prepared an hour long program on this problem. We've spoken with parents who never dreamed their young daughter would be caught up in underage prostitution but was. We've also interviewed several girls who lived to tell about their experiences of being sold. Tuesday night at 8pm Eastern time on HDNet, via satellite and cable.



Individual trauma results from an event, series of events, or set of circumstances experienced by an individual as physically or emotionally harmful or life-threatening with lasting adverse effects on the individual’s functioning and mental, physical, social, emotional, or spiritual well-being. 

In the United States, 61 percent of men and 51 percent of women report exposure to at least one lifetime traumatic event, and 90 percent of clients in public behavioral health care settings have experienced trauma. If trauma goes unaddressed, people with mental illnesses and addictions will have poor physical health outcomes and ignoring trauma can hinder recovery. To ensure the best possible health outcomes, all care — in all health settings — must address trauma in a safe and sensitive way.


Symptoms of Trauma

The first symptoms that are likely to develop immediately after an overwhelming event include hyper-arousal, constriction (feeling pressure), disassociation, and denial, as well as feelings of helplessness, immobility, or freezing.

Other symptoms that begin to show up at the same time, or shortly after those listed above can include:

  • Hyper-vigilance (being “on guard” all the time)

  • Intrusive imagery or flashbacks

  • Extreme sensitivity to light and sound

  • Hyperactivity

  • Exaggerated emotional and startle responses

  • Nightmares and night terrors

  • Abrupt mood swings (rage reactions or temper tantrums, frequent anger, or crying)

  • Shame and lack of self-worth

  • Reduced ability to deal with stress (easily and frequently stressed-out)

  • Difficulty sleeping


Several of these symptoms can also show up later, even years later. This list is not for diagnostic purposes, but is a guide to get a feel for how trauma symptoms appear.


  • Panic attacks, anxiety, and phobias

  • Mental “blankness” or spaced-out feelings

  • Avoidance behavior (avoiding places, activities, movements, memories, or people)

  • Attraction to dangerous situations

  • Addictive behaviors (overeating, drinking, smoking, etc.)

  • Exaggerated or diminished sexual activity

  • Amnesia and forgetfulness

  • Inability to love, nurture, or bond with other individuals

  • Fear of dying or having a shortened life

  • Self-mutilation (severe abuse, self-inflicting cutting, etc.)

  • Loss of sustaining beliefs (spiritual, religious, interpersonal)


The final group of symptoms are those that generally take longer to develop. In most cases, they may have been preceded by some of the earlier symptoms. However, there is no fixed rule that dictates when and if a symptom will appear. This group includes:


  • Excessive shyness

  • Diminished emotional responses

  • Chronic fatigue or very low physical energy

  • Immune system problems and certain endocrine problems such as thyroid malfunction and environmental sensitivities

  • Psychosomatic illnesses, particularly headaches, migraines, neck and back problems.

Levine, Peter A. PhD. (2005). Healing Trauma, A Pioneering Program for Restoring the Wisdom of Your Body. Sounds True, Inc., Boulder, CO, pp 15-19

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